62% of young people between the ages of fifteen and nineteen in Timor-Leste are unemployed according to the United Nations.
It says youths are disenfranchised and dissatisfied with the high unemployment, low wages and lack of access to education.
And according gang specialist James Scambary who spoke with the United Nations, a barely functioning justice and police system is part of what makes it likely that people will continue to seek vigilante justice to resolve their disputes and to use gangs and martial arts groups as enforcers.
It is important to note that although some gangs have martial arts group members, not all martial arts groups are gangs. And that martial arts groups are primarily sporting associations.